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双语:单田芳--讲故事的人

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发表于 2018-10-7 12:16:23 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
双语:单田芳--讲故事的人
China is fondly remembering one of its most famous radio voices, a man whose vivid storytelling was a comfort to millions of people, from commuters stuck in traffic to restless teens struggling to sleep.

中国在深情怀念最著名的电台主播之一,这个男人口中的生动故事,给数百万人带来安慰,他们或是堵在路上的通勤者,或是难以入眠的焦躁少年。




Shan Chuanzhong, better known by his stage name Shan Tianfang, was a leading exponent of the traditional Chinese performance art form pingshu, which translates as "storytelling". He has died aged 84 following a long illness.

艺名“单田芳”的单传忠是中国传统表演艺术形式“评书”的代表人物,评书就是“讲故事”。患病多年后,单田芳于84岁离世。




Pingshu, also known as "shoushu" and "pinghua", dates from the Song Dynasty (AD960-1279), when performers would entertain villagers by telling stories in a particularly emotive style.

评书也被称为“说书”“评话”,肇始于宋代(公元960年到1279年),表演者用特别富有情感的方式讲述故事以飨村民。




It remains particularly popular in north-eastern China. Performers wear traditional dress and use very basic props - often a folded fan and a gavel. The fan is used to indicate a character's physical movements, like drawing a sword, or hitting something. The gavel is pounded for dramatic effect to indicate a moment of high drama.

评书在中国东北部仍然很流行。表演者穿着传统大褂,使用基本的道具,经常是一把折扇和一块醒木。扇子用来表现人物的身体动作,例如拔剑或击打某物,扣响醒木旨在产生戏剧效果,表明高潮来了。




Pingshu is sometimes performed in tea houses and small theatres, but many Chinese associate the art form with radio. And in a country where sleeping problems are commonplace, pingshu is still popular as a way of helping people to wind down at bedtime.

评书有时在茶馆和小剧场中演出,但许多中国人将这种艺术形式与广播联系在一起。在一个很多人睡不好觉的国家,评书也是一种睡前静心的流行方式。




Shan's daughter Shan Huili thanked fans for their tributes soon after his death on 11 September, saying: "Although he has passed away, his voice will always accompany everyone, and his works will last forever."

9月11日单田芳逝世后,女儿单慧莉对爱好者表示感谢,她说:“尽管他走了,他的声音将永远陪伴大家,他的作品不朽。”




Early years
Shan Tianfang was born in 1934 in Yingkou, in north-eastern Liaoning province. His family introduced him to folk arts from a young age and he began learning pingshu when he was 19.

单田芳1934年出生在辽宁省营口。家人在他年幼时就送他学习民间艺术,他19岁开始学习评书。




He became known in Liaoning for his work on stage and in local teahouses during the 1950s and 1960s, and performed in an art troupe around the region.

五六十年代,他在舞台和当地茶馆中表演,后来跟着一个艺术团在各地巡演。




But because of its associations with imperial China, pingshu was deemed taboo during Mao's Cultural Revolution from 1966-1976, meaning that Shan, along with other pingshu performers like Yuan Kuocheng, was forced to stop work.

但因为与帝制中国的关系,文革期间评书成了禁忌,单田芳和袁阔成等评书表演者被迫停止表演。




Shan was persecuted for his mastery of pingshu, which was seen as a hangover from a feudal era. He was detained for "reformation training" in 1968 and was released in 1970.

因为会说评说,单田芳受到迫害,评书被视作封建残余。他1968年被关起来“劳改”,1970年获释。




However, after the Cultural Revolution, pingshu enjoyed a new lease of life, especially during the 1980s.

但文革后,评书复兴,尤其在八十年代。




Shan made the transition to state-run radio, and his captivating storytelling became comfort listening for people across the country.

单田芳转型在国营电台说书,他让人欲罢不能的讲故事技艺成为全国人民的听觉享受。




The popularity of the broadcasts was helped by the growth in consumer spending in the 1980s and the increasing availability of listening devices, including personal stereos.

八十年代的消费增长、包括随身听在内的收听设备越来越多,导致广播普及。




Move towards television
By the 1990s, Shan had become a well-known face on state TV, even performing in the coveted annual Spring Festival Gala show, the single most-watched programme in mainland China.

九十年代,单田芳在国家电视台上无人不晓,甚至在每年一次的春节联欢晚会上亮相,这是中国大陆收看率最高的节目,很多人求之不得。




He was able to use the medium to entrance his audience and in the process he helped to popularise classical Chinese literature.

他使用这一媒介让观众神魂颠倒,在这一过程中普及了中国传统文学。




As film director Zhang Jizhong told the Global Times newspaper: "He could describe a scene and a character extremely vividly. He once had a long talk with me about adapting the heroic stories he told into films or television shows to help promote Chinese classics and traditional culture."

正如电影导演张纪中对《环球时报》所言:“他能极其生动地描述一个场景和一个人物。他曾和我长谈,如何将他讲过的英雄故事改变为电影或电视剧,从而推动中国经典和传统文化。”




Shan gave countless performances of the "Four Classic Novels" (Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Journey to the West, Dream of the Red Chamber and Water Margin), and also helped to bring lesser-known classical Chinese literature to new audiences.

单田芳讲过无数次“四大名著”(《三国演义》《西游记》《红楼梦》《水浒传》),也普及了一些不太知名的中国古典文学。




One of his most acclaimed performances is of the Heroes in the Sui and Tang Dynasties, a historical and romantic saga about rebellious soldiers during the brief AD581-605 Sui Dynasty, and how they overcame the persecution of the emperor.

他最受赞誉的表演是《隋唐英雄传》,这是一部讲述隋朝(公元581年到公元605年)造反士兵的历史浪漫传奇,他们如何战胜皇帝的迫害。




His stories attracted people of all ages, and grieving fans posted tributes to the late storyteller after his death.

他的故事吸引了各年龄层次的人,他逝世后,伤心的爱好者们发文向这位讲故事的前人致敬。




One user on China's Twitter-like Sina Weibo service wrote: "When I was young, I remember hearing on my father's radio a compelling sound and a slightly hoarse voice. In the last two years, I have found myself listening to a lot of audiobooks on my mobile phone. You [Shan] have really been by my side for over 20 years."

新浪微博上的一个用户说:“我年轻时,记得在父亲的广播中听到一个迷人的声音,嗓音有些沙哑。过去两年,我在手机上听了很多有声书。单田芳过去20年一直伴我左右。”




But in his later years, the growth of online and digital media exposed the challenges of keeping his art form alive.

但单田芳晚年时,网络和数字媒体的增长给这种艺术形式的生存带来挑战。




Shan turned his efforts towards writing books and opening performance schools dedicated to teaching pingshu to young people. They included the Shan Tianfang Culture and Media Academy in Beijing, which he founded in 1995.

单田芳转向写书和开表演学校,致力于将评书传授给年轻人。其中包括1995年在北京创办的单田芳文化传媒艺术学校。




A Shan Tianfang teahouse and "storytelling base" in Anshan in Liaoning province are devoted to his teachings. This is where many of his performances took place in the 1950s and 1960s.

辽宁省鞍山的单田芳茶社和“讲故事基地”也致力于教学活动。他上世纪五六十年代经常在这里表演。




Meanwhile, modern productions of pingshu reference contemporary culture to draw in new performers and audiences. Performers like Guo Heming have emerged, putting a modern spin on pingshu by adapting popular works, including the Harry Potter stories.

同时,当代评书还从现代文化中汲取营养,以获得新的表演者和听众。郭鹤鸣等表演者涌现出来,他们通过改编《哈利波特》故事等流行作品给评书带来现代气息。




Health problems
Shan performed over 12,000 stories on TV and radio. And although he wasn't particularly active on social media, he amassed more than one million fans on the Sina Weibo platform.

单田芳在电视和广播中演绎了12000多个故事。尽管在社交媒体上不甚活跃,他的新浪微博平台还是积累了超过100万关注者。




His health began to decline in 2014, when he was diagnosed with a blood clot in the brain, and started to show symptoms of aphasia, a condition commonly associated with a stroke.

2014年发现脑血栓并出现失语症以来,他的身体每况愈下,失语症通常与中风有关。




In an interview with state-run CCTV-10 in June 2017, he described how he was having increasing trouble with his speech.

2017年6月接受央视十套采访时,他说自己越来越说不出话来了。




"After [the blood clot], learning to say 'one, two, three', I couldn't say anything. I couldn't even say 'one'. How did this feel? It felt like I was finished."

“后来,学着说‘一二三’,都说不出来了。我连‘一’都说不出来。这是什么感觉?我感觉我完了。”




Shan became a wheelchair user, but continued to visit his academy and help students learn the art of pingshu until his death on 11 September. State media said he had died as a result of his long illness. His sister says he died without pain, with family members at his side.

单田芳坐起了轮椅,但继续到学校里去,帮助学生学习评书一书,一直到9月11日去世。国家媒体说他久病而亡,妹妹说他安详逝去,家人陪伴在身边。




A memorial was held for him on 15 September but millions of Chinese will miss his voice.

9月15日举办了追悼会,但数百万中国人还会想念他的声音。




As one fan wrote: "Now that Tianfang has gone, I feel as though something is missing in my life.

一个爱好者写道:“现在田芳走了,我感觉生命中失去了什么。”




"I have spent many nights listening to his stories, and they help me sleep…  Tianfang is deeply rooted in our lives."

“我多少个晚上听他的故事,他助我睡眠……田芳深深植根在我的生命中。”


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